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NEB year 2063 computer science questions and solutions

 NEB year 2063 computer science questions

old syllabus:

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2063 (2006)                                                                         Group 'A'                                                         (Long Answer Questions)

Attempt any two of the following questions:[2x20 = 40]

1.

    a) Write is looping? Write a C Program do display the sum of 'n' terms of even numbers. [2+3]

    Ans:-

    Looping:-

                A control structure where some statements' executions are repeated again and again till the condition is satisfied.As the condition becomes false, further execution stops.this is called loop.

Second part:-

/*Program do display the sum of 'n' terms of even numbers*/

#include<stdio.h>

int main()

{        
int k=0,n,sum=0;

printf("enter value of 'n' as total number/term\n");
scanf("%d",&n);
while(k<=n)
   {
       
      sum=sum+k;
      k=k+2;
   }
printf("sum=%d",sum);
return 0;
}

    b) Write a C Program to calculate the factorial of a given number using functions. [5]

    Ans:-

    #include<stdio.h>

    void fact();

    int main()

{

fact();

return 0;

}

void fact()

{
         int number,fact=1,i;

       printf("enter any positive number\n");
      scanf("%d",&number);
    if(number>0)
        
         for(i=1;i<=number;i++)
            {
             fact=fact*i;
           }
    }
else
    {
    printf("the number is not +ve\n");
    }
 printf("the factorial value for entered number=%d is =%d\n",number,fact);

}

    c) What is an operator? Describe different types of operators that are included in [2+3]

    Ans:-

    
operator:- It is a symbol or a character used in programming. It is used to carry out some operation.

for example: +,-,= etc
Types of operator:-
It is of following types.
1)Arithmetic operator: It is used to do arithmetic calculations/operation.
 It has following types.

 +         -----------> used for addition.example is a+b. It means we are performing addition with the help of operand a and b
-           ------------>It is used for subtraction.Example is a-b.  It means we are performing subtraction with the help of operand a and b
* -------------------->used for multiplication.example is a*b. It means we are performing multiplication with the help of operand a and b
/---------------->used for division.example is a/b. It means we are performing division with the help of operand a and b
%---------------->used for remainder division.example is a%b. It means we are performing division with the help of operand a and b.It gives us remainder after division.

2)relational operator: 
This operator is used to perform comparisons between variables.It supports us to take decision logically. example,x>y ,x>=y etc
Relational operator has following types.


>------> It is used to show greater than. like x>y
>=----->It is used to show greater than or equals to.like x>=y
<-------->It is used to show a variable is smaller than another.like x<y
<=-------> It is used to show smaller than or equals to with another variable.Like x<=y
!=----------> I simply says , two variables are not equal in value.like x!=y
==---------->It says two variables have same value.It is used to test values of two variables.

3)Logical operator:-
                                   This operator is quite helpful when we want to combine multiple  conditions and take decision.It returns values in the form of 0 o 1.It works logically.
Its types are:

3.a)and (&&)-----------> It is called 'and'operator.It is used to combine multiple conditions.It gives us true output if all of them are true otherwise we get false output.
 example:if(a>b && a>c)
                      {
                            display a     
                        }
 we can see here that to be greatest,value of 'a' must be greater than b and c. So we use here '&&'
   
  3.b)or(||):- It is called 'or'operator.It is used to combine multiple conditions.It gives us true output if anyone of them is true or all are true otherwise we get false output.
 example:if(a==90 || b==90 || c==90)
                      {
                            display right angle triangle  
                        }
 we can see here that to be right angled triangle,either 'a'or 'b'or 'c' a must be 90 . So we use here '||'.

3.c) !(not )operator:-
                                It is used to reverse the result.
example
int a=5;
if(!(a==5))
{
printf("it is\n");
}
else
{
printf("it is not\n");
}
here ,the value is 5 but we get output "it is not".It is called reversing the output.

4) Assignment operator:
                                an operator ,symbolized by '=' character,is called assignment operator.It assigns value to variable.
example:
int a=6;
It means, we are assignming value 6 to variable a.

5)Unary operator:- this operator  works on one operand only.It has two types.
                               I) increment operator:- It increases the value of given variable by one.For example: ++y or y++
                                             It can be classified into pre-increment and post increment.
                                                 pre-increment:- It is written as ++x.It means first increase the value and then use that.
                                                 post-increment: It is written as x++.It means, first use that and then increase its value by one.

                               II)decrement operator:- It decreases the value of given variable by one.For example: --y or y--
                                             It can be classified into pre-decrement and post decrement.
                                                 pre-decrement:- It is written as --x.It means first decrease the value and then use that.
                                                 post-decrement: It is written as x--.It means, first use that and then decrease its value by one.


Besides these all, we have some other operators .like  bitwise,

    d) What are the differences between break and continue statement? Write a C Program to print first 10 terms of the following series using 'for' loop [2+3]

1,5,9, 13...

Ans:-

Differences are  given below:-


break
continue
1
It terminates the execution.
It takes the iteration to next level(skipping).
2
It can be used in loop and switch.
It can be used in switch
3
It uses keyword ‘break’.
It uses keyword ‘continue’.
4
Its syntax is
break;
Its syntax is
continue;
5
Example is
For(i=1;i<=4;i++)
{
  If(i<=2)
    Printf(“%d\n”,i);
     Break;
}
}
Example is
For(i=1;i<=4;i++)
{
  If(i<=2)
    Printf(“%d\n”,i);
     continue;
}
}

output is:1 
output is:1,2

Second part:-

/*Program to print first 10 terms of the following series 1,5,9, 13... using 'for' loop*/

#include<stdio.h>

int main()

{

    int k,p=1;

    for(k=1;k<=10;k++)

        {

            printf("%d,",p);

            p=p+4;

        }

return 0;

}    

2.

    a) What is any array? Write a C Program to sort integer values in descending order.[2+8]

    Ans:-

    
Array:-

Definition: A composite variable capable of holding multiple data of same data type under a single variable name is called array.
Features:
->stores multiple values
->helps to solve complex porblem
->can be used as array as pointer
->pixel based graphics programming made easier etc

Declaration of Array:

datatype array_name [size];

Example: - int marks [10]; int x[4]={1,2,3,4};

Array size is fixed at the time of array declaration.

Generally, we use for loop () to assign data or item in memory and also use this loop to extract data from memory location.

Types of Array:

There are 2 types of array.

a) One Dimensional Array (1-D): IT is an array where we use one subscript value.It stores value in row in contigous cells.
syntax:
data type arra[value/size];
For example:
int a[10];
This array stores ten value starting from location zero na dends at 9.

b) Two Dimensional Array (2-D):an array where we may use two or more than two subscript values.
In this we use matrix concept.
syntax:
data type arra[row size][column size];
For example:
int a[2][2];
It uses two rows and two columns.
Values are stored as:

 

Column zero

Column one

Row 0 à

1(0,0)

2(0,1)

Row 1à

3(1,0)

4(1,1)

This array stores total four  values starting from location zero and ends at 1.

Second part:-
/*Program to sort integer values in descending order.*/
#include <stdio.h>

int main()

{

int numbers[100];

int n,i,j,k;

printf("enter the size of n\n");

scanf("%d",&n);

printf("Enter numbers\n");

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

{

scanf("%d",&numbers[i]);

}

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

{

for(j=i+1;j<n;j++)

{

if(numbers[i]<numbers[j])

{

k=numbers[i];

numbers[i]=numbers[j];

numbers[j]=k;

}

}

}

printf("numbers in descending order are=:\n");

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

{

printf("%d\n",numbers[i]);

}

return 0;

}

    b) Write a C Program to read age of 40 students and count the number of students of the age between 15 and 22.[10]

Ans:-

/*C Program to read age of 40 students and count the number of students of the age between 15 and 22*/

#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
void main()
{
int i,count=0;
in age[40];
for(i=0;i<39;i++)
{
printf("enter age\n");
scanf("%d",&age[i]);
  if(age[i]>=15 && age[i]<=22)
              {
                count++;
              }
  
}

printf("total students getting in age group 15 and 22=%d\n",count);

getch();
}


3. a) Differentiate between structures and pointers with examples.[10]

    Ans:-

    We can understand structure and pointer with the help of following points/explanations.

    structture:-

    
Definition: The user defined data type which can store the data of various data types such as int, char etc. is called Structure.


It is used to hold all the facts of single objects.

Example: Book [publication, title, author, price, page];

Student [roll no, class, name, telephone no, age];

There are 3 phases in structure.

1. Design Phase

2. Declaration phase

3. Data access phase
syntax:
struct tag
{
  data type member1;
  data type member 2;
  data type member 3;
}variables;
example:
struct student
{
 char name[100];
 int roll;
}var;

Pointer:-

A pointer is a variable that stores a memory address.  Pointers are used to store the addresses of other variables or memory items.  Pointers are very useful for another type of parameter passing, usually referred to as Pass By Address.  Pointers are essential for dynamic memory allocation.

some advantages:

1.It handles memory effectively.

2.Useful in file handling

3.Reduces spaces.

4.Reduces execution time.

Example:

#include<stdio.h>

int main()

{

int *k;

int m=90;

k=&m;

printf("address=%d",k);

printf("value=%d",*k);

return 0;

}
here , k is a pointer and will store address of a variable m. It is then printed using printf(). To print its value we have to use  indirection operator.

    b) Write a C program with a menubase system which has the following features: [10]     i. Appending record ii. Reading Record iii. Delete record     iv. Quit

    Ans:-

    //menu based program to store, read and delete record of students

#include<stdio.h>

#include<stdlib.h>

#include<conio.h>

int main()

{

char name[100],address[100],section[100];

int grade,roll,droll;

FILE *p,*p1;

system("cls");;

 char choice;

 printf(" you have following choice......\n");

 printf("----------------------------------------------------------\n");

 printf("'a' or 'A' to store or add more(append) data\n");

 printf("'r' or 'R' to display records/read\n");

printf(“’d’ or’D’ to delete record\n”);

printf(“any other character to exit\n”);

 printf(" enter your choice......\n");

 choice=getche();

 switch(choice)

 {

  case 'a':

  case 'A':

            system("cls");

            printf("\nwe are going to add/store data\n");

            char ch='y';

            FILE *p;

            p=fopen("record.txt","a");

            printf("----------------------------------------------------------------\n");

 while(ch!='n')

 {

            printf("\n");

            printf("enter student's name\n");

            scanf("%s",name);

            printf("enter student's address\n");

            scanf("%s",address);

            printf("now enter student's section\n");

            scanf("%s",section);

            printf("enter his/her grade\n");

            scanf("%d",&grade);

            printf("now enter his/her roll no.\n");

            scanf("%d",&roll);

            fprintf(p,"%s %s %s %d %d\n",name,address,section,grade,roll);

            printf("you want to continue?\n");

            printf("press y/Y to contnue and 'n'  to discontinue..\n");

            ch=getche();

 }

            fclose(p);

              break;

 

  case 'r':

  case 'R':

            system("cls");

            printf("\nwe are going to display/read records\n");

 p=fopen("record.txt","r");

            printf("----------------------------------------------------------------\n");

            while((fscanf(p,"%s %s %s %d %d\n",name,address,section,&grade,&roll))!=EOF)

 {

             printf("name=%s,address=%s,",name,address);

            printf(" section=%s,grade=%d and roll=%d\n",section,grade,roll);

            printf("--------------------------------------------------------------\n");

 }

 fclose(p);

break;

case 'd':

case 'D':

            printf(“we are going to delete a record\n”);

            p=fopen("record.txt","r");

            p1=fopen(“temp.txt”,”w”);

            printf("----------------------------------------------------------------\n");

            printf(“enter roll number to be deleted\n”);

            scanf(“%d”,&droll);

            while((fscanf(p,"%s %s %s %d%d\n",name,address,section,&grade,&roll))!=EOF)

 {

             

                        if(roll==droll)

                                    printf(“this record has been deleted\n”);

                        else

                                    fprintf(p1,"%s %s %s %d %d\n",name,address,section,grade,roll);             

            }

                        fclose(p);

fclose(p1);

printf("data updated!!!!\n");

remove("record.txt");

rename("temp.txt","record.txt");

                        break;

            default:

             printf("\nsorry, this choice is not available..so terminating the program\n");

             printf("thank u for using this program..\n");

            exit(0);

}

getch();

return 0;

 }

                                                 Group 'B' (Short Answer Questions)[5x7= 35]

Attempt any five questions:

4. What is system analysis? Explain the different steps of system development life cycle.[2+5=7]

Ans:-

System ananlysis:-

Once the problems identified, it is time to analyze the type of software that could answer the problems encountered. System analysis (may be by system analyst) will take a look at possible software. The goal of a system analysis is to know the properties and functions of software that would answer the concerns solicited from intended users.
                                                     System Analysis would lead in determining the requirements needed in software. These requirements in software should be implemented otherwise the software may not answer the concerns or may  lack in its usage. This stage will somehow determine how the software should function.
                                                                                   It is the study of complete business system or parts of business system and application of information gained from that study to design,documentation and implementation of new or improved system. This field is closely related to operations research. An analyst work with users to determine the expectation of users from the proposed system.

Second part:-



SDLC's different phases are shown around the circle.
1.Planning/requirements study
2.System ananlysis
3.System design
4.System Development 
5.System testing
6.System implementation
7.System evaluation
8System maintenance

Planning:-

The first step is problem definition(study). The intent is to identify the problem, determine its cause, and outline a strategy for solving it. It defines what ,when who and how project will be carried out. 

                    As we know everything starts with a concept. It could be a concept of someone, or everyone. However, there are those that do not start out with a concept but with a question, “What do you want?” and "really, is there a problem?" They ask thousands of people in a certain community or age group to know what they want and decide to create an answer. But it all goes back to planning and conceptualization. 

                                                In this phase the user identifies the need for a new or changes in old or an improved system in large organizations. This identification may be a part of system planning process. Information requirements of the organization as a whole are examined, and projects to meet these requirements are proactively identified. 

                                             We can apply techniques like:

1) Collecting data by about system by measuring things, counting things, survey or interview with workers, management, customers, and corporate partners to discover what these people know.

2) observing the processes in action to see where problems lie and improvements can be made in workflow.

3)Research similar systems elsewhere to see how similar problems have been addressed, test the existing system, study the workers in the organization and list the types of information the system needs to produce.

2) Getting the idea about context of problem

3) The processes - you need to know how data is transformed into information.

                     Like data structures, storage, constraints that must be put on the solution (e.g. operating system that is used, hardware power, minimum speed required etc,  what strategy will be best to manage the solution etc.    

5. Explain the term Polymorphism and Inheritance.

Ans:-

Its an important OOPs concept , Polymorphism means taking more than one forms .Polymorphism gives us the ultimate flexibility in extensibility. The ability to define more than one function with the same name is called Polymorphism.Polymorphism allows the programmer to treat derived class members just like their parent class’s members. More precisely, Polymorphism in object-oriented programming is the ability of objects belonging to different data types to respond to calls of methods of the same name .If a Dog is commanded to speak(), this may elicit a bark(). However, if a Pig is commanded to speak(), this may elicit an oink(). Each subclass overrides the speak() method inherited from the parent class Animal.
example is:
Simple example of Polymorphism, look at an Account (it may be checking or saving assuming each attract different dividends) you walk in a bank and ask a teller what is my balance? or dividends? you don't need to specify what kind of an account you're having he will internally figure out looking at his books and provide you the details.

Inheritance
Inheritance is mainly used for code reusability.In the real world there are many objects that can be specialized. In OOP, a parent class can inherit its behavior and state to children classes. Inheritance means using the Predefined Code. This is very main feature of OOP, with the advantage of Inheritance we can use any code that is previously created. This concept was developed to manage generalization and specialization in OOP.  Lets say we have a class called Car and Racing Car . Then the attributes like engine no. , color of the Class car can be inherited by the class Racing Car . The class Car will be Parent class , and the class Racing Car will be the derived class or child class
The following OO terms are commonly used names given to parent and child classes in OOP:
Superclass: Parent class.
Subclass: Child class.
Base class: Parent class.
Derived class: Child class
It can have many types.
single inheritance:-one derived class inherits property from one base class
multiple              “  :- one derived class inherits property from many base classes.
multi level          “ :-in this many derived classes are inherited from many base classes
hierarchical       “ :-under this many derived classes can be inherited from single base class
hybrid                 “:-it’s a combination of hierarchical and multilevel.

6. Define database administrator. Explain the duties and responsibilities of a database administrator. [2+5]

Ans:-

Database Administrator:-

A database administrator can be a user or a group of users. They collectively handle the database related jobs. DBA primary job is to ensure that data is available, protected from loss and corruption, and easily accessible as needed.

Duties of DBA:-
 

1. Software installation and Maintenance

A DBA often collaborates on the initial installation and configuration of a new Oracle, SQL Server etc database.

2. Data Extraction, Transformation, and Loading

Known as ETL, data extraction, transformation, and loading refers to efficiently importing large volumes of data that have been extracted from multiple systems into a data warehouse environment.

3. Database Backup and Recovery

DBAs create backup and recovery plans and procedures based on industry best practices, then make sure that the necessary steps are followed. Backups cost time and money, so the DBA may have to persuade management to take necessary precautions to preserve data.

4. Security

A DBA needs to know potential weaknesses of the database software and the company’s overall system and work to minimise risks. No system is one hundred per cent immune to attacks, but implementing best practices can minimise risks.

5. Authentication

Setting up employee access is an important aspect of database security. DBAs control who has access and what type of access they are allowed. For instance, a user may have permission to see only certain pieces of information, or they may be denied the ability to make changes to the system.

7. Write short notes on any two:[3.5+3.5]

a) „Client server network ii) Workstation c) Protocol

Ans:-

a)client server network:

It's a network where where
  • In this, one or two computers work as server and left all work as clients.
  • Clients computers give request to server for a task to be performed.
  • Clients computers may or may not have self processing capability. they rely on server.
  • Mostly servers use a powerful operating system like, Linux or Unix or Win advanced server2008 etc.
  • Through server, the sharing of files is done.
  • Everything is controlled by server so in the case of down, services can not be completed.
  • under heavy load, many servers share the tasks.
  • there is high level security in networking.
  • High traffic towards servers while processing.

b)Workstation:

Workstation, a high-performance computer system that is basically designed for a single user and has advanced graphics capabilities, large storage capacity, and a powerful central processing unit. ... Workstations are used primarily to perform computationally intensive scientific and engineering tasks.workstations may come with more cores per CPU or support multiple, separate CPUs for even more parallel processing capability. In addition, workstations often come standard with more RAM and larger, faster hard drives than the typical desktop has.

c)Protocol:

A communications protocol is a formal description of digital message formats and the rules for exchanging those messages in or between computing systems and in telecommunications. Protocols may include signaling, authentication and error detection and correction capabilities. A protocol describes the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication and may be implemented in hardware or software, or both.

We have many examples like http, ftp, stp, tcp/IP etc.

TCP is one of the main protocols in TCP/IP networks. Whereas the IP protocol deals only with packets, TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange streams of data. TCP guarantees delivery of data and also guarantees that packets will be delivered in the same order in which they were sent.

8. What is normalization? Explain the normalization process with examples. [2+5]

Ans:-

Normalization:-

In the field of relational database design, normalization is a systematic way of ensuring that a database structure is suitable for general-purpose querying and free of certain undesirable characteristics—insertion, update, and deletion anomalies that could lead to a loss of integrity.
It is of following types:
1N
2N
3N
4N
and 5N
Advantages:-

Some of the major benefits include the following :

  • Greater overall database organization
  • Reduction of redundant data
  • Data consistency within the database
  • A much more flexible database design
  • A better handle on database security
Normalization process with example:-

1 NF:

        

A TABLE IS SAID TO BE IN 1n IF there is not repeating groups or information in a table..Here, repeating group means a set of columns that stores similar information that repeats in the same table.

Let’s consider following SQL commands.

Create table contacts

(

Contact Id               Integer                    not null,

L_name                  varchar(20)            not null,

F_name                  varchar(20)           

Contact_date1      date,

Contact_desc1      varchar(50),

Contact_date2      date,

Contact_desc2      varchar(50),

);

We can see here in this table that there is a repeating group of date and description.

Now to convert into 1 N, we have to make a new table and shift that repeating group into new table.

Like,

Create table contacts

(

Contact_ID integer        not null,

L_name      varchar(20) not null,

F_name      varchar(20)

);

 

Create table conversation

(

Contact_id integer        not null,

Contact_date date,

Contact_desc        varchar(50)

);


2N:

A table is said to be in 2 N if it is in 1N and there is no redundant data in table i.e. if a value of column is dependent on one column(primary key only) but not another.

For example:

Create table employee

(

Emp_no     integer        not null,

L-name       varchar(20) not null,

F_name      varchar(20),

Dept_code integer,

Description varchar(50),

);

This table contains redundant data i.e. the value of column(field) “description” depends on dept_code but does not depend on primary key “emp_no”.So let’s make a new table and shift them into that.

Create table employee

(

Emp_no     integer        not null,

L_name      varchar(20) not null,

F_name      varchar(20),

Dept_code integer,

);

 

Create table department

(

Dept_code integer        not null,

Description varchar(50) not null,

);

We got two tables named employee and department with fields. Both the tables are related by primary key called dept_code. Now there is no redundancy and table is in 2N.


3N:-

An entity is said to be in the third normal form when,

1) It satisfies the criteria to be in the second normal form.

2) There exists no transitive functional dependency. (Transitive functional dependency can be best explained with the relationship link between three tables. If table A is functionally dependent on B, and B is functionally dependent on C then C is transitively dependent on A and B).

Example:

Consider a table that shows the database of a bookstore. The table consists of details on Book id, Genre id, Book Genre and Price. The database is maintained to keep a record of all the books that are available or will be available in the bookstore. The table of data is given below.

Book id

Genre id

Book genre

price

121

2

fiction

150

233

3

travel

100

432

4

sports

120

123

2

fiction

185

424

3

travel

140

The data in the table provides us with an idea of the books offered in the store. Also, we can deduce that BOOK id determines the GENRE id and the GENRE id determines the BOOK GENRE. Hence we can see that a transitive functional dependency has developed which makes certain that the table does not satisfy the third normal form.

Book id

Genre id

price

121

2

150

233

3

100

432

4

120

123

2

185

424

3

140


                                                                           table book

Genre id

Book genre

2

fiction

3

travel

4

sports


                                                                           table genre

After splitting the tables and regrouping the redundant content, we obtain two tables where all non-key attributes are fully functional dependent only on the primary key.

When all the column in a table describe and depend upon the primary key,the table is 3N.

9. Define the term multimedia. Explain the application areas of multimedia.[2+5]

Ans:-

Multimedia:-
Multimedia is a broad term for combining multiple media formats. Whenever text, audio, still images, animation, video and interactivity are combined together, the result is multimedia. Slides, for example, are multimedia as they combine text and images, and sometimes video and other types.
Applications of Multimedia:-
1)Multimedia in Education: Multimedia is becoming popular in the field of education. It is commonly used to prepare study material for the students and also provide them proper understanding of different subjects.Nowadays Edutainment, a combination of Education and Entertainment has become very popular. This system provides learning as well as provides entertainment to the user.

2)Multimedia in Entertainment
: Computer graphics techniques are now commonly use in making movies and games. this increase the growth of multimedia.

3)Movies: Multimedia used in movies gives a special audio and video effect. Today multimedia has totally changed the art of making movies in the world. Difficult effect, action are only possible through multimedia.

4)Games: Multimedia used in games by using computer graphics, animation, videos have changed the gaming experience. Presently, games provides fast action, 3-D effects and high quality sound effects which is only possible through multimedia.

5)Multimedia in Business: Today multimedia is used in every aspect of business. These are some of the applications:

10. What is networking? Explain the advantage and disadvantages of networking .[2+5]

Ans:-

Networking:-

computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of computers and devices connected by communications channels that facilitates communications among users and allows users to share resources with other users. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics. 

Purpose of networking:-

  • Networking for communication medium (have communication among people;internal or external)

  • Resource sharing (files, printers, hard drives, cd-rom/) 

  • Higher reliability ( to support a computer by another if that computer is down)

  • Higher flexibility( different system can be connected without any problems)

Advantages and disadvantages of computer network:

Advantages:-

  1. Sharing devices such as printers saves money.
  2. Site (software) licences are likely to be cheaper than buying several standalone licences.
  3. Files can easily be shared between users.
  4. Network users can communicate by email and instant messenger.
  5. Security is good - users cannot see other users' files unlike on stand-alone machines.
  6. Data is easy to backup as all the data is stored on the file server.
Disadvantages:-

1.Purchasing the network cabling and file servers can be expensive.
2.Managing a large network is complicated, requires training and a network manager usually needs to be employed.
3.If the file server breaks down the files on the file server become inaccessible. Email might still work if it is on a separate server. The computers can still be used but are isolated.
4.Viruses can spread to other computers throughout a computer network.
5.There is a danger of hacking, particularly with wide area networks. Security procedures are needed to prevent such abuse, eg a firewall.

11. What are the different symbols used to construct a flow chart? Give explanation along with a neat diagram. [7]

Ans:-

Flowchart:-

A very powerful tool which is used to depict the algorithm diagrammatically. Or graphical representation of algorithm is called flowchart. A flowchart can show and give us a bird eye view of algorithm. We can understand easily what an algorithm willing to say. While designing or drawing flowchart, we use many symbols like:




Advantages:

1.        Good means of communication.

2.        Effective analysis

3.        As Documentation tool

4.        Helps in debugging process.

Disadvantages”

1.        Time consuming.

2.        More space consuming

3.Difficult to maintain


eg. 1. to get sum of two numbers.


12. Write short notes on any two: [3.5+3.5]

a) Feasibility study b)Data security Data security c)E-commerce

Ans:-

a)Feasibility study:-

  

 It is the measure and the study of how beneficial the development of the system would be to the organization. This is known as feasibility study. The aim of the feasibility study is to understand the problem and to determine whether it is worth proceeding.
It has following types.

1.Technical feasibility: - This is concerned with availability of hardware and software required for the development of system.The issues with can be like:
2.Operational feasibility:- It is all about problems that may arise during operations. There are two aspects related with this issue:
3) Economic feasibility: - It is the measure of cost effectiveness of the project. The economic feasibility is nothing but judging whether the possible benefit of solving the problem is worthwhile or not. Under "cost benefit analysis", there are mainly two types of costs namely, cost of human resources and cost of training.
                                                           
4) Legal feasibility: - It is the study about issues arising out the need to the development of the system. The possible consideration might include copyright law, labor law, antitrust legislation, foreign trade etc.
Apart from these all we have some more types:
behaviour feasibility, schedule feasibility study etc.

b)Data security

It simply says protection of data /information contained in database against unauthorized access, modification or destruction. The main condition for database security is to have “database integrity’ which says about mechanism to keep data in consistent form. 

We can apply following methods to secure our data.

Access control. 
Antivirus and anti-malware software. 
Behavioral analytics.

Data loss prevention.

Firewalls.


c)E-commerce:-

E-commerce is a transaction of buying or selling online. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerceelectronic funds transfersupply chain managementInternet marketingonline transaction processingelectronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web for at least one part of the transaction's life cycle although it may also use other technologies such as e-mail.
E-commerce businesses may employ some or all of the following:

  • Online shopping web sites for retail sales direct to consumers
  • Providing or participating in online marketplaces, which process third-party business-to-consumer or consumer-to-consumer sales
  • Business-to-business buying and selling
  • Gathering and using demographic data through web contacts and social media
  • Business-to-business (B2B) electronic data interchange

source:-

smallbusiness.chron.com

merriam-webster.com

content.dsp.co.uk


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