Contemporary technology

 e-Commerce and e-business
E-commerce refers to online transactions, buying and selling of goods and/or services over the internet.
E-business covers online transactions, but also extends to all internets based interactions with business partners, suppliers and customers.
Advantages of e-commerce:
a.  It makes buying selling procedure faster, as well as easy to find products.
b.  It makes buying/selling possible 24/7.
c.  There are no theoretical geographical limitations hence more reach to customers.
d.  It reduces operational costs and provides better quality of services.
e. It does not require physical company set ups.
f.  It is easy to start and manage a business.
Disadvantages of e-commerce:
a. Any one, good or bad can easily start a business. And there are many bad sites which eat up customer's money.
b. There is no guarantee of product quality.
c.  Mechanical failures can cause unpredictable effects on the total processes.
d. As there is minimum chance of direct customer to company interactions, customer loyalty is always on a check.
e. There are many hackers who look for opportunities and thus an ecommerce site, service payment gateways all are always prone attack.
E-learning is a new concept of delivering digital contents in learner oriented environment using information and communication te4chnology (ICT). Delivery of the digital content is the main characteristic of e-learning.
Advantages of e-learning:
It maintains the consistency of content.
It is easy for customization.
There is no any geographical limitation for learning.
It is quite favorable for learner as it can happen at any time and anywhere.
It reduces or eliminates travel costs to attend learning events.
It reduces or eliminates need for classroom/instructor infrastructure.
Disadvantages of e-learning:
Learners with low motivation or bad study habits may fall behind
Without the routine structures of a traditional class, students may get lost or confused about course activities and deadlines
Students may feel isolated from the instructor and classmates
Instructor may not always be available when students are studying or need help
Slow Internet connections or older computers may make accessing course materials frustrating
Managing computer files and online learning software can sometimes seem complex for students with beginner-level computer skills
Hands-on or lab work is difficult to simulate in a virtual classroom.
E-governance is the application of electronic means to improve the interaction between government and citizens; and to increase the administrative effectiveness and efficiency in the internal government operations.
Despite the government of Nepal has positively giving attention towards the development of ICTs and subsequent implementing e-governance, a number of issues has yet addressed. Some of the challenges for successful implementation of e-governance are presented as:
Information transparency
Legal issues
Resources availability
Infrastructure including connectivity in rural area
Capacity and awareness
Political will and government action
Advantages of E-governance
E-Governance offers many benefits and advantages for the government, corporate sector and society. E-Governance facilitates better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management. It simplifies internal operations and improves performance of government departments while helping all sections of society to avail government services at lower cost with maximum ease of use.
Virtual reality
Virtual reality is a new computational paradigm that redefines the interface between human and computer becomes a significant and universal technology and subsequently penetrates applications for education and learning.
Application fields of Virtual reality
Virtual Reality in the Military: 
A virtual reality simulation enables them to do so but without the risk of death or a serious injury. They can re-enact a particular scenario, for example engagement with an enemy in an environment in which they experience this but without the real world risks.
Virtual Reality in Education: 
Education is another area which has adopted virtual reality for teaching and learning situations. The advantage of this is that it enables large groups of students to interact with each other as well as within a three dimensional environment.
Virtual Reality in Healthcare: 
Healthcare is one of the biggest adopters of virtual reality which encompasses surgery simulation, phobia treatment, robotic surgery and skills training.
Virtual Reality in Business: 
Many businesses have embraced virtual reality as a cost effective way of developing a product or service. For example it enables them to test a prototype without having to develop several versions of this which can be time consuming and expensive.
Virtual Reality in Engineering: 
Virtual reality engineering includes the use of 3D modelling tools and visualization techniques as part of the design process. This technology enables engineers to view their project in 3D and gain a greater understanding of how it works. Plus they can spot any flaws or potential risks before implementation.
Virtual Reality and Scientific Visualization: 
Virtual reality is being increasingly used in the field of scientific visualization. This field is based upon using computer graphics to express complex ideas and scientific concepts, for example molecular models or statistical results.
Virtual Reality Programming Languages: 
For virtual reality to be truly effective, it must have a good sense of realism. Just on its own this is a technical challenge and, as such, virtual reality is highly demanding on many resources. From hardware performance to the intellectual ability of the implementer of the system, how these are managed are a massive issue.
E-medicine refers to an approach that provides medical services whenever and wherever required using information and communication technology.
With the help of this approach, even small number of doctors can provide medical service to large number of people scattered in different locations. The people of rural areas who are unable to get service of doctors can be benefitted from this approach. The patients share his/her medical problems to the doctors. This approach is now getting more popularity among the doctors too. They can post their experiences and issues in the online discussion forum. Without good facility of information and communication technology, e-medicine cannot be effective. This is the problem facing in the developing countries like Nepal.
Impact of Robotics in human life
Positive Impacts:
Robots can provide a wide variety of benefits to society. The most prominent benefit of robots is that they allow physical tasks to be performed at a greater speed than humans could reasonably achieve, and that tasks can be performed by robots that are beyond the reasonable physical capabilities of humans. For example, in manufacturing, mechanized processes allow production to take place at a great speed, with little human effort required. This allows for the low-cost mass-production of goods. These manufacturing processes allow for great precision, and can allow products of a very high quality to be produced.
Negative Impacts:
As they are out to use to do common tasks, Humans are increasingly becoming lazy, and thus their health is adversely affected. Also, as robots become more and more autonomous, the chances that they commit a mistake are very high. These mistakes can lead to serious problems if unchecked. Also, as self-learning Robots evolve, they may make decisions that are harmful to Human beings. From another perspective, If the robots are not self-learning, they will do jobs only which they are programmed for. Updating their functions will thus require more expertise.

Define computer crime and its various forms.


Alternatively referred to as cyber crimee-crimeelectronic crime, or hi-tech crime. Computer crime is an act performed by a knowledgeable computer user, sometimes referred to as a hacker that illegally browses or steals a company's or individual's private information. In some cases, this person or group of individuals may be malicious and destroy or otherwise corrupt the computer or data files.

Below is a listing of the different types of computer crimes today. Clicking on any of the links below gives further information about each crime.

Child pornography - Making or distributing child pornography.
Cyber terrorism - Hacking, threats, and blackmailing towards a business or person.Cyberbully or Cyberstalking - Harassing others online.
Creating Malware - Writing, creating, or distributing malware (e.g. viruses and spyware.)
Denial of Service attack - Overloading a system with so many requests it cannot serve normal requests.
Espionage - Spying on a person or business.
Fraud - Manipulating data, e.g. changing banking records to transfer money to an account.
Harvesting - Collect account or other account related information on other people.

Explain e-governance and its components.

Electronic governance or e-governance is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information, communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services between government-to-customer (G2C), government-to-business (G2B), government-to-government (G2G) as well as back office processes and interactions within the entire government framework.

Its components are:
The goal of government-to-customer (G2C) e-governance is to offer a variety of ICT services to citizens in an efficient and economical manner, and to strengthen the relationship between government and citizens using technology.
There are several methods of government-to-customer e-governance. Two-way communication allows citizens to instant message directly with public administrators, and cast remote electronic votes (electronic voting) and instant opinion voting. 
 E-Governance to Employee partnership (G2E) Is one of four main primary interactions in the delivery model of E-Governance. It is the relationship between online tools, sources, and articles that help employees maintain communication with the government and their own companies. E-Governance relationship with Employees allows new learning technology in one simple place as the computer.

In the field of networking, the Government Secure Intranet (GSI) puts in place a secure link between central government departments. It is an IP-based virtual private network based on broadband technology introduced in April 1998 and further upgraded in February 2004. Among other things it offers a variety of advanced services including file transfer and search facilities, directory services, email exchange facilities (both between network members and over the Internet) as well as voice and video services
Government-to-Business (G2B) is the online non-commercial interaction between local and central government and the commercial business sector with the purpose of providing businesses information and advice on e-business 'best practices'. G2B:Refers to the conduction through the Internet between government agencies and trading companies. 

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