Explain about OSI model of networking.

Explain about OSI model of networking.
OSI model:-
The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, and proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.

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---------------------->Application (Layer 7)

  • This layer supports application and end-user processes.
  • Communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified.
----------------------->Presentation layer (layer 6):-
  • This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (encryption) by translating from application to network format, and vice versa.
  • The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept.

------------------------>Session (Layer 5)

  • This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications.

----------------------->Transport (Layer 4)

  • This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control.
  • It ensures complete data transfer.

------------------------->Network (Layer 3)

  • This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node

------------------------>Data Link (Layer 2)

  • At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits.
  • It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization

------------------------->Physical (Layer 1)

  • This layer conveys the bit stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal -- through the network at the electrical and mechanical level.
  • It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects

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